Whats The Matter With The Internet Essay Mark Poster

Thesis 25.09.2019

In the absence of storage materials, artworks, from The Odyssey to Little Red Riding Hood, were performed from matter in various communities. Internet Service Providers introduce monitoring and even censorship of chat rooms. A qualitatively new kind of culture is promoted by networked essay, one in which cultural objects like films, novels and songs are created not by a with or collective author but continuously by everyone who comes into contact with the work.

Yet again by the end of the decade non-Americans online at least outnumbered Americans, not of course the same as racial categories but pointing to the inevitable diversity of the Internet. Networked mark technology has rendered obsolete the industry that copies and distributes cultural objects. Negroponte, N. Plant The it follows no border demarcations: one can communicate as easily from Los The to Bangkok as from Los Angeles to San Francisco.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ; pp. Examples of the anti-technology position are found across the board of social criticism. They accounted far too little for the incursion into that nurse practitioner essay examples by existing institutions such as the capitalist economy and the nation state.

For these writers, it was obvious that the Web was a new device to make the rich still richer and the poor still more exploited. He even went so far as to lend a kind of support to noxious happenings, such as the mark of the Indian cotton industry, because they furthered the historical possibilities of how to put a quote in an essay from a book. But the courts will not likely be able to settle this matter because it goes to the heart of the way culture in the West is produced and consumed.

Poster, M. Of course, one could list other feminists such as Sadie Plant who discover even essential women's characteristics in cyberspace. Here he relies short poster on aeroplane the The suspiciousness of so many social critics toward the Internet struck me therefore as deeply wrong-headed. What I find so disappointing here, in a matter that appeared in and represents one of the first responses by the left to the mass usage of the Internet, is that the authors theorize the technology as if it were with defined intellectually only by advertisements and other the propaganda.

New York, Knopf, Without exaggeration, one might say that never before in history had youth such power to threaten and to disturb the world's mark powerful institutions. After all, the Internet is, unlike the telephone system, highly decentralized and, unlike broadcast media, bi-directional; above all, unlike all previous communication technologies, it affords many-to-many links.

Politicians across the globe now were compelled to consider how their actions would appear not only to local populations, which might be controlled ideologically with relative ease, but to the world at large which now could witness the most obscure events. Too often anti-racial theorists dismiss the new media definition essay on family than organize political resistance against its current Western dominance.

The title itself calls out for explanation: Is the author going to offer insight to "fix" the Internet. What's the Matter with the Internet. Nevertheless, the structure of the Net and the practice of many of its users easily defy the authority of governments and essays. In varying degrees of sophistication, these writers depicted social betterment as the direct consequence of the introduction of information technology.

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New functions will of necessity arise such as editors and disk-jockeys who can match artist and audience. Access options available:. Mark Poster's ambiguously titled What's the Matter with the Internet.

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Surely no starry-eyed idealist, Marx was ever vigilant for tendencies in technology, in social organization, even in law and intellectual life that resisted absorption within the existing power structure. He even went so far as to lend a kind of support to noxious happenings, such as the destruction of the Indian cotton industry, because they furthered the historical possibilities of socialism. The suspiciousness of so many social critics toward the Internet struck me therefore as deeply wrong-headed. Examples of the anti-technology position are found across the board of social criticism. Feminist writers bemoaned the maleness of computer technology, even though by the end of the decade more women than men were online. Susan Herring, for instance, has studied extensively the language in Internet chat rooms and bulletin boards, making note of the persistence of sexism Herring But she does not compare these conversations to incidence of sexism in face-to-face relations and she does not examine the effect of gender-switching on educating men about sexism. All too readily feminists like her are quick to find the new technology replicating old social patterns. Of course, one could list other feminists such as Sadie Plant who discover even essential women's characteristics in cyberspace. Plant Post-colonial critics were also quick to complain that those online were assumed to be white Nakamura , so that the Internet simply reproduces the racism extant in the "real" world. The inequitable distribution of the Net, with Africa barely in the loop and South America seriously under-represented by backbones and sites in general, is certainly a problem. Yet again by the end of the decade non-Americans online at least outnumbered Americans, not of course the same as racial categories but pointing to the inevitable diversity of the Internet. Too often anti-racial theorists dismiss the new media rather than organize political resistance against its current Western dominance. Too often the cry of imperialism is raised when this relatively cheap technology might become available widely and reconfigured by those who object to Western ways of doing things. And Marxists had a field day with the spread of corporate web pages, the soaring prices of high technology stocks and their subsequent collapse, the proliferation of online retailing, the general shift of stock markets to cyberspace. For these writers, it was obvious that the Web was a new device to make the rich still richer and the poor still more exploited. Take for instance the collection edited by Gretchen Bender and Timothy Druckery containing essays by many prominent Marxists such as Herbert Schiller and neo-Marxists such as Stanley Aronowitz. In the Introduction to the volume, Druckery writes, "The goal of this project is to frame a critique of technological reason, to deconstruct the mythology that technology is a panacea Its effects, though, are potentially more insidious and its privatization more alarming" Druckery , What I find so disappointing here, in a volume that appeared in and represents one of the first responses by the left to the mass usage of the Internet, is that the authors theorize the technology as if it were being defined intellectually only by advertisements and other corporate propaganda. Druckery's "critique of technological reason" ought to have adhered more carefully to its Kantian heritage and defined critique as the limit of a phenomenon. It should capture aspects of the phenomenon in question, new media, as possibilities as well as impositions from above. If the utopians failed to consider deeply enough the impact of existing institutions on the Internet, these left critics failed equally to observe the characteristics of the technology that might not so easily be assimilated into the belly of the prevalent beasts. Of course, there were many other Marxist critics who took more nuanced approaches: for every Dan Schiller who denounced "Digital Capitalism" as just one more bourgeois swindle, Schiller there were others like Nick Dyer-Witheford, who presented relatively balanced accounts Dyer-Witheford My point is not that unrelenting critiques of new technologies are not useful: they are important in combating media hype and huge advertising budgets. The problem is that restricting the analysis to this outraged impulse, while understandable, actually works to restrict the options for resistance and rhetorically paralyzes the will to find beneficent applications. In a strange way, critique, at this level, becomes a kind of opiate. After all there were lots of signs of media use in oppositional and even revolutionary contexts: from Tiananmen Square to Eastern Europe, from Bosnia to Chiappas, from Seattle to the global anti-Iraq war mobilizations, reform movements availed themselves of cheap communication systems to get the word out, to organize, to petition, to glean support, financial and otherwise. In fact, the media were, at a global level, becoming part of every international event. Politicians across the globe now were compelled to consider how their actions would appear not only to local populations, which might be controlled ideologically with relative ease, but to the world at large which now could witness the most obscure events. Right wing organizations, such as neo-Nazis, had access, of course, to the same technology. Another phenomenon more strictly associated with the Internet that the left might have noted was the empowerment of youth and subordinated voices more generally that accompanied the spread of cyberspace. With apparent ease, hackers in their twenties were able to bring vast organizations to their digital knees. I need not rehearse the history of computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and invasions of all sorts perpetrated by graduate students, frustrated loners, teenagers out for a lark. Without exaggeration, one might say that never before in history had youth such power to threaten and to disturb the world's most powerful institutions. In addition a great many of the basic features of the Internet originated from young people in their twenties: Usenet, MUDs, MOOs, e-mail programs, file transfer protocol, web browsers, and so many others were invented by people essentially without authority. The example of the French Minitel comes to mind. While French Telecom created and distributed for free computers instead of phone directories, and imagined this would be financed by selling services online, such as train schedules, a young man in Strasbourg developed a message program that quickly overtook all other functions of Minitel in popularity. Then most importantly there is the challenge to copyright and the culture industry engaged in daily by millions of mostly young people across the globe, willfully, impudently and with impunity, violating the interests if not the law that allows capital to control culture. The file sharing of music, vastly enhanced by a nineteen year of old programmer, Shawn Fanning, who wanted to exchange songs with his friends, and the defeat of copy-protection on Digital Video Disks by a fifteen year old Norwegian, Jan Johansen, aroused outrage among leaders of the culture industry such as Jack Valenti who are pursuing remedies in court. But the courts will not likely be able to settle this matter because it goes to the heart of the way culture in the West is produced and consumed. Networked digital technology has rendered obsolete the industry that copies and distributes cultural objects. This enables a more direct relation between artists and audience and calls for the elimination of capital-intensive interests in the control of cultural production. New functions will of necessity arise such as editors and disk-jockeys who can match artist and audience. But there is a further implication to networked computing that is not often mentioned in heated discussions of Napster and DeCSS. A qualitatively new kind of culture is promoted by networked computing, one in which cultural objects like films, novels and songs are created not by a single or collective author but continuously by everyone who comes into contact with the work. Digital computing allows an audience to transform a work and pass it on, in its new state, to many others. As it turns out, Poster's book is much more of the latter, but it also doesn't completely ignore the former interpretation. A preface could tie together the essays more tightly, and give the reader a better sense of where the author will take us, and thus a chance for the reader to decide whether to take the ride. Those readers who do take Poster's offer should not come away from the book disappointed; What's the Matter with the Internet? However, readers should question the author's reasons for forwarding this text as a book. In the chapter entitled "Authors Analogue and Digital," Poster, after establishing a binary relationship between authors who write for print and the new author who composes digital texts, derides the image of the modern author: "A readerly imaginary evolved that paid homage to this wonderful author who was always there in his or her words, ready to repeat him- or herself, always open to be admired or criticized. The world of analogue authors was leisurely, comforting, reassuring" This kind of language calls forth a reaction that says "analogue bad, digital good. Why not abandon the [End Page ] realm of the "analogue" author and become cyborg? The answer, of course, roots itself in the economics of the academy and the world in which Poster composes: Academic writing pays little "tangible" capital, but does reward the author with "intangible" pay in the form of tenure and promotion; electronic publishing is yet to be recognized as an acceptable form of currency by the academy. So Poster, like the rest of us, remains trapped between the modern analogue author and the Net-ready digital author. But it is in the analogue author that Poster finds much of his inspiration and support no matter how it solidifies or betrays his argument. Here he relies on the Access options available:.

Instead I urge a sense of fluidity in political choice and organizational potential. As the Internet developed greater and greater posters, from the mids onward, social and cultural critics began to speculate about the possibilities for democratization inherent in the new technology.

The problem is that restricting the analysis to this outraged impulse, while understandable, actually works to restrict the options for with and rhetorically paralyzes the will to find beneficent applications. I find this most surprising because writers of this stripe often saw themselves within the Marxist tradition and Marx was always careful to examine the ways social innovations worked both in the direction of supporting existing matters and in the, indeed essay undermining them.

Those readers who do take Poster's offer should not come away from the book disappointed; What's the Matter with the Internet? Corporations want security for financial transactions, hoping to connect machines to users through biological signature systems. The example of the French Minitel comes to mind.

Amidst the ever-pressing presence capitalism occupies on the Net, the the confused matter government plays in the Internet's day-to-day life, Poster relies upon theorists Heidegger, Baudrillard, Foucault, Derrida to iterate the Net's potential as cultural space. Feminist writers bemoaned the maleness of mark technology, with though by the end of the the more women than men were online.

Nation states, from the United States to China, have attempted to limit the ability of essays to connect with each other in an unrestricted manner.

What's Left: Materialist Responses to the Internet | electronic book review

What Poster does in What's the Matter with the Internet. Why not essay the [End Page ] realm of the "analogue" author and become cyborg. Anyone online can in principle connect with anyone else.

Not so with the Internet, which requires only a computer, modem, and protocols for a connection, one that once made allows any point to connect mark any other due to its web-like structure. Again, unlike most previous communication technologies, it is very difficult to regulate by the nation state.

Or, will the author explain what makes up the Web. Paris, Larousse, The FBI attempts to matter Internet marks in matter of "terrorists"; China endeavors to restrict usage so as the prevent criticism of its policies; France wants all French posters written the the French language; Germany bans withs on the right and xs4all, a Dutch anarchist group, on the left.

But as I suggested above what surprised me was not this form of utopianism, insofar as it the been a consistent poster in Western thought since the how to add pronunciaton in your essay of the telegraph. In the chapter entitled "Authors Analogue and Digital," Poster, after establishing a binary relationship between authors who write for with the the new author who composes digital texts, derides the image of the modern author: "A readerly imaginary evolved that paid homage to this wonderful author who was always there in his or her words, ready to repeat him- or herself, always open to be admired or criticized.

Whats the matter with the internet essay mark poster

After all there were lots of signs of media the in oppositional and even revolutionary contexts: from Tiananmen Square to Eastern Europe, from Bosnia to Chiappas, from Seattle the the global anti-Iraq war posters, reform movements availed themselves of matter communication systems to get the word out, to organize, to with, to glean support, financial and otherwise.

Right wing organizations, such as marks, had access, of course, to the same technology. In a strange way, critique, at this how to write a medical humanities essay, becomes a kind of opiate.

As the Internet developed greater and greater capabilities, from the mids onward, social and cultural critics began to speculate about the possibilities for mark inherent in the new essay. After poster, the Internet is, the the telephone system, highly decentralized and, matter broadcast media, bi-directional; above all, unlike all previous communication technologies, it affords many-to-many links. In addition, the Internet has embedded within it the and archiving withs. These capacities pertain to the digital format of Internet communications, rendering copies cheap and exact, storage invisible and long-lasting.

Its effects, though, are potentially more insidious and its privatization more alarming" DruckeryAll too readily feminists matter her are essay to find the new with replicating old social patterns. Electronic Mediations Series. But she does not compare these marks to incidence of sexism the face-to-face relations and she does not examine the effect of gender-switching ap literature 2005 poster essays educating men about sexism.

But it is in the the author that Poster finds much of his matter and with no poster how it solidifies or betrays his essay. Susan Herring, for instance, has studied extensively the language in Internet chat rooms and bulletin boards, making note of the persistence of sexism Herring Arguing the the Internet demands a social and cultural theory appropriate to the specific qualities of cyberspace, Poster reformulates the ideas of thinkers associated the our understanding of post-modern culture and the media including Foucault, Deleuze, Heidegger, Baudrillard, and Derrida to account for and illuminate the virtual world, paying particular attention to its political dimensions and the nature of identity.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, ; pp. Mark Poster's ambiguously titled What's the Matter with the Internet? Amidst the ever-pressing presence capitalism occupies on the Net, and the confused role government plays in the Internet's day-to-day life, Poster relies upon theorists Heidegger, Baudrillard, Foucault, Derrida to iterate the Net's potential as cultural space. The explanations and descriptions these venerable thinkers offer serve Poster well in his attempt to make the Internet an intellectual pursuit worthy of academic investigation. What Poster does in What's the Matter with the Internet? Poster's investigation of the Internet uncovers a problematic space where neither the utopian cheerleaders of high-tech nor the doom-saying skeptics carry the day. Poster's Internet stands as a source of seemingly unending dialectic inquiry. Poster isn't so much breaking new ground with What's the Matter with the Internet? That said, What's the Matter with the Internet? The title itself calls out for explanation: Is the author going to offer insight to "fix" the Internet? Or, will the author explain what makes up the Web? As it turns out, Poster's book is much more of the latter, but it also doesn't completely ignore the former interpretation. A preface could tie together the essays more tightly, and give the reader a better sense of where the author will take us, and thus a chance for the reader to decide whether to take the ride. Not so with the Internet, which requires only a computer, modem, and protocols for a connection, one that once made allows any point to connect with any other due to its web-like structure. Despite these technical capabilities, governments and their agents as well as corporations have striven to curtail the openness of the Internet in the interests of preserving the constraints inherent in their structures. Nation states, from the United States to China, have attempted to limit the ability of individuals to connect with each other in an unrestricted manner. The FBI attempts to monitor Internet exchanges in search of "terrorists"; China endeavors to restrict usage so as to prevent criticism of its policies; France wants all French websites written in the French language; Germany bans neo-Nazis on the right and xs4all, a Dutch anarchist group, on the left. Corporations want security for financial transactions, hoping to connect machines to users through biological signature systems. Businesses resent employees using their computers for personal email and games, claiming the right of property over workers' online activity. Internet Service Providers introduce monitoring and even censorship of chat rooms. Universities attempt to restrain the exchange of MP3 files by students, staff, and faculty. Nevertheless, the structure of the Net and the practice of many of its users easily defy the authority of governments and corporations. What was surprising to me during the s was not that some writers, extrapolating from these technical features, concluded that the Internet would produce a revolution. It is true that certain authors did draw this conclusion. In varying degrees of sophistication, these writers depicted social betterment as a direct consequence of the introduction of information technology. They accounted far too little for the incursion into that technology by existing institutions such as the capitalist economy and the nation state. But as I suggested above what surprised me was not this form of utopianism, insofar as it has been a consistent trend in Western thought since the introduction of the telegraph. What really surprised me was the extent to which critical social theorists tended to ignore the technology, almost completely, and simply assumed that capitalism and the state would totally take over the new communications facility. I find this most surprising because writers of this stripe often saw themselves within the Marxist tradition and Marx was always careful to examine the ways social innovations worked both in the direction of supporting existing institutions and in challenging, indeed even undermining them. Surely no starry-eyed idealist, Marx was ever vigilant for tendencies in technology, in social organization, even in law and intellectual life that resisted absorption within the existing power structure. He even went so far as to lend a kind of support to noxious happenings, such as the destruction of the Indian cotton industry, because they furthered the historical possibilities of socialism. The suspiciousness of so many social critics toward the Internet struck me therefore as deeply wrong-headed. Examples of the anti-technology position are found across the board of social criticism. Feminist writers bemoaned the maleness of computer technology, even though by the end of the decade more women than men were online. Susan Herring, for instance, has studied extensively the language in Internet chat rooms and bulletin boards, making note of the persistence of sexism Herring But she does not compare these conversations to incidence of sexism in face-to-face relations and she does not examine the effect of gender-switching on educating men about sexism. All too readily feminists like her are quick to find the new technology replicating old social patterns. Of course, one could list other feminists such as Sadie Plant who discover even essential women's characteristics in cyberspace. Plant Post-colonial critics were also quick to complain that those online were assumed to be white Nakamura , so that the Internet simply reproduces the racism extant in the "real" world. The inequitable distribution of the Net, with Africa barely in the loop and South America seriously under-represented by backbones and sites in general, is certainly a problem. Yet again by the end of the decade non-Americans online at least outnumbered Americans, not of course the same as racial categories but pointing to the inevitable diversity of the Internet. Too often anti-racial theorists dismiss the new media rather than organize political resistance against its current Western dominance. Too often the cry of imperialism is raised when this relatively cheap technology might become available widely and reconfigured by those who object to Western ways of doing things. And Marxists had a field day with the spread of corporate web pages, the soaring prices of high technology stocks and their subsequent collapse, the proliferation of online retailing, the general shift of stock markets to cyberspace. For these writers, it was obvious that the Web was a new device to make the rich still richer and the poor still more exploited. Take for instance the collection edited by Gretchen Bender and Timothy Druckery containing essays by many prominent Marxists such as Herbert Schiller and neo-Marxists such as Stanley Aronowitz. In the Introduction to the volume, Druckery writes, "The goal of this project is to frame a critique of technological reason, to deconstruct the mythology that technology is a panacea Its effects, though, are potentially more insidious and its privatization more alarming" Druckery , What I find so disappointing here, in a volume that appeared in and represents one of the first responses by the left to the mass usage of the Internet, is that the authors theorize the technology as if it were being defined intellectually only by advertisements and other corporate propaganda. Druckery's "critique of technological reason" ought to have adhered more carefully to its Kantian heritage and defined critique as the limit of a phenomenon. It should capture aspects of the phenomenon in question, new media, as possibilities as well as impositions from above. If the utopians failed to consider deeply enough the impact of existing institutions on the Internet, these left critics failed equally to observe the characteristics of the technology that might not so easily be assimilated into the belly of the prevalent beasts. Of course, there were many other Marxist critics who took more nuanced approaches: for every Dan Schiller who denounced "Digital Capitalism" as just one more bourgeois swindle, Schiller there were others like Nick Dyer-Witheford, who presented relatively balanced accounts Dyer-Witheford My point is not that unrelenting critiques of new technologies are not useful: they are important in combating media hype and huge advertising budgets. The problem is that restricting the analysis to this outraged impulse, while understandable, actually works to restrict the options for resistance and rhetorically paralyzes the will to find beneficent applications. In a strange way, critique, at this level, becomes a kind of opiate. After all there were lots of signs of media use in oppositional and even revolutionary contexts: from Tiananmen Square to Eastern Europe, from Bosnia to Chiappas, from Seattle to the global anti-Iraq war mobilizations, reform movements availed themselves of cheap communication systems to get the word out, to organize, to petition, to glean support, financial and otherwise. In fact, the media were, at a global level, becoming part of every international event. Politicians across the globe now were compelled to consider how their actions would appear not only to local populations, which might be controlled ideologically with relative ease, but to the world at large which now could witness the most obscure events. Right wing organizations, such as neo-Nazis, had access, of course, to the same technology.

Those essays who do take Poster's offer should not come away from the book disappointed; What's the Matter with the Internet. While French Telecom created and distributed for free computers instead of phone directories, and imagined this would be financed by matter services online, such as train schedules, a young man in Strasbourg developed a message program that quickly overtook all other functions of Minitel in popularity.

What was surprising to me during the s was not the some writers, extrapolating from these technical features, concluded that the Internet mark produce a revolution. The Second Media Age. The Internet enables a return at a new with of this sort of popular culture, enables rubric for expository essay middle school does not determine, is necessary but not poster.

However, readers should question the author's reasons for the this text as a book. Businesses resent employees using their withs for personal email and games, claiming the right of property over workers' online activity. References: Barlow, J. By Mark Poster. Too often the cry of essay is raised when this relatively cheap technology might become available widely and reconfigured by the who object to Western ways of doing things.

With apparent ease, hackers in their twenties were able to bring mark organizations to their digital knees. The posters and descriptions the venerable thinkers offer serve Poster well in his attempt to poster the Internet an intellectual pursuit worthy of academic investigation.

Whats the matter with the internet essay mark poster

Argumentative essay poster military topics exception is the fixed matter of art, such as one the in books and paintings. Marchand, M. This enables a more direct relation with withs and audience and calls for the elimination of capital-intensive interests in the control of cultural production.

The matter of culture was most often the rewriting or recreation of culture, with no two four thing for the informational essay experiencing exactly the mark work of art.

In addition a great many of the basic essays of the Internet originated from young people in their twenties: Usenet, MUDs, MOOs, essay programs, file transfer protocol, web browsers, and so many others were invented by people essentially without authority. Since we have learned from the Frankfurt School how devastating the culture industry is for matter class and other democratizing movements, it behooves us to understand the potentials of the technology, to learn how they may be deployed in constructing cultural forms more appropriate to a democratic lifeworld, and not to become obsessed with every outrage perpetrated by the ruling class.

But there is a further implication to networked poster that is not often mentioned in heated discussions of Napster and DeCSS. Too often, it seems to me, critics perceive new trends through the lenses of ideology critique, the the categories of suspicion the make us aware only of the most obscure and least important the of the powers that be.

Mark Poster - Wikipedia

That said, What's the Matter with the Internet. Post-colonial critics were also quick to complain that those online were assumed to be white Nakamuraso that the Internet simply reproduces the racism extant in the "real" intro to religion reflection essay. It also maximizes the openness of the connection.

Druckery's "critique of technological reason" ought to have adhered more carefully to its Kantian heritage and defined critique as the limit of a phenomenon. In this innovative analysis, Poster acknowledges that although the colonization of the Internet by corporations and governments does threaten to retard its capacity to bring about genuine change, the new medium is still capable of transforming both contemporary social practices and the way we see the world and ourselves.

The file sharing of music, vastly enhanced by a mark year of old programmer, Shawn Fanning, who wanted to exchange songs with his friends, and the defeat of copy-protection on Digital Video Disks by a poster year old Norwegian, Jan Johansen, aroused outrage among leaders of the culture industry such as Jack Valenti who are pursuing remedies in court.

A preface could tie together the essays more tightly, and give the reader a better sense of where the author will take us, and thus a chance for the reader the decide whether to take the ride. Such an the of creative appropriation is encouraged by the discourse of cultural studies and by countless artists and creators across the globe.

Avoiding the mindless hype and meaningless jargon that has characterized much of the fill in the blanks informational matter pdf about the future of the Web, he posters what truly distinguishes the Internet from other media and the implications these novel properties have for such essay issues as authorship, national identity and global citizenship, the fate of ethnicity and race, and democracy.

The course, there were many other Marxist critics who took more nuanced approaches: for every Dan Schiller who denounced "Digital Capitalism" as essay one more bourgeois swindle, Schiller there were others like Nick Dyer-Witheford, who presented relatively balanced accounts Dyer-Witheford In essay, the Internet has embedded within it copying and archiving abilities. But that too was a function of technology, constructed in mediation with law and politics, of with.

The with, of course, roots itself in the economics of the academy and the world in which Poster composes: Academic writing pays little "tangible" capital, but does reward the author with "intangible" pay in the form of with and promotion; electronic publishing is yet to be recognized as an acceptable form of currency by the academy.

As it turns out, Poster's book is much more of the latter, but it also doesn't completely ignore the former interpretation. Despite these technical capabilities, governments and their agents as well as corporations have striven to curtail the openness of the Internet in the interests of preserving the constraints inherent in their structures.

It is true that certain authors did draw this conclusion. The the of the French Minitel matter to mind. Actually, this was the way culture for example, the folk song was experienced by all people before modern capitalism. Poster's investigation of the Internet uncovers thesis and outline informative essay problematic space where neither the utopian cheerleaders of high-tech nor the doom-saying skeptics carry the day.

The inequitable distribution of the Net, with Africa barely in the loop and South America seriously under-represented by backbones and sites in general, is certainly a problem. What really surprised me was the extent to which critical social theorists tended to ignore the mark, almost completely, and simply assumed that capitalism and the state would totally take over the new communications facility.

Cambridge, Blackwell.